The kings dominated with the assistance of officers

The kings dominated with the assistance of officers, each excessive and low. Greater officers had been referred to as mahamatras, they usually carried out numerous capabilities resembling these of the minister (mantrin), commander {senanaydkd), decide, chief accountant and head of the royal harem. It’s probably class of officers referred to as ayuktas additionally carried out comparable capabilities in a number of the states.

The kings carried on administration with the assistance of the officers. Varsakara of Magadha and Dirghacharayana of Kosala had been efficient and influential ministers. The primary succeeded in sowing seeds of dissension within the ranks of the Lichchhavis of Vaisali and enabled Ajatasa- tm to beat the republic. The second rendered assist to the king of Kosala. It seams that top officers and ministers had been largely recruited from the priestly class of the brahmanas. Typically they don’t appear to have belonged to the clan of the .king.

In each Kosala and Magadha, regardless of the usage of the punch-marked cash made from silver, influential brahmanas and setthis had been paid by the I grant of the income of villages. In doing so, the king didn’t should acquire the consent of the clan, as was the case in later Vedic instances, however the beneficiaries had been granted solely income; they weren’t given any administrative authority.

The agricultural administration was within the fingers of the i village headman. At first, the headmen functioned as chief’s 6f the tribal regiments, and In order that they had been referred to as gramini which implies the chief Sf the grama or a tribal army unit. As life turned sedentary and plofigli cultivation’wellestablished, tribal contingents’settled down td agriculture. The gra- thini due to this fact was remodeled right into a village headman In pre Maurya instances. The’ village

hoadfnon had been recognized by totally different titles resembling gramabhojaka, gramini or gramika. Eighty-six thousand gramikas are mentioned to have been summoned by Bimbisara The quantity could also be con-ventional, however it exhibits that the village headmen loved appreciable significance and had direct hyperlinks with the kings The village headmen assessed and picked up the taxes from the villagers, they usually additionally maintained regulation and order of their locality. Generally oppressive headmen had been taken to activity by the villagers.

Military and Taxation

The actual enhance in state energy is indicated by the formation of a giant skilled military. On the time of Alexander’s invasion, the Nanda ruler of Magadha saved 20,000 cavalry, 200,000 infantry, 2000 horse-chariots and about 4000 elephants. The chariots had been dropping their significance sizzling solely in north-east but in addition in north-west India, the place they’d bean launched by the Aryans. Only a few elephants had been maintained by the rulers of the states in north-west India, although a few of them maintained as many horses because the Magadhan king did. The possession of quite a few elephants gave an edge to the Magadhan princes.

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